To make the pie dough, mix dry ingredients with cold butter on low in a stand mixer to incorporate most of the butter, leaving some hazelnut-sized pieces. Turn the mixer off and add ¾ of the ice water all at once. Mix until dough starts to come together, adding more water if it looks too dry.
Turn dough out onto a floured surface and finish mixing by hand. To mix, flatten dough and fold it over itself two to three times. The dough should be mostly put together and slightly loose. Do not knead the dough. Wrap in plastic and refrigerate a minimum of 30 minutes or up to 2 days.
For the filling, peel and core apples, then cut into wedges or thin slices. Combine apples with ¾ cup of sugar, spices, vanilla and lemon juice. In a separate bowl, mix the cornstarch and 3 tablespoons of sugar.
Melt butter in a large pot over and when hot, add the apple filling mixture. Cook over medium-high heat, stirring constantly until the apples are tender but not mushy. While the apples are still cooking, gradually sprinkle the cornstarch and sugar mixture onto the apples to thicken the liquid. (You may not need all the starch mixture.) Remove from the heat and allow the cooked apples to cool to room temperature before filling your pie. The filling can be made the day before assembling and baking your pie.
Remove the refrigerated dough, divide in half, and roll on a floured surface. Place one rolled half in the bottom of a nine-inch pie pan (preferably glass, so you can see that the bottom crust is baking) and pinch off excess dough. Fill with cooked apple filling, or whatever pie filling you choose, and place second half of dough on top. Pinch top and bottom dough together to form a seal. (See video below for demonstration techniques.) Cut “vents” in your pie top, brush with egg wash and sprinkle with sugar to get a shiny, golden crust.
Bake in a preheated oven at 375 degrees (traditional) for 45-60 minutes or 350 degrees (convection) for 40-60 minutes towards the bottom of your oven to ensure the bottom crust is cooked. Check the pie frequently and be sure to rotate as necessary to bake evenly.